At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Duchy of Luxembourg was raised to the rank of a grand duchy and was ceded to the new King of the Netherlands, who thus also became the first Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg stayed in this personal union until 1890, when different rules of succession parted the titles from each other. Luxembourg was inherited in accordance to the Nassau Family Pact which was based firstly upon Salic Law in favor of all agnatic lines of the medievally-originated House of Nassau, and apparently was interptetable to allow female succession only in Semi-Salic basis if all agnatic lines become extinct. However, The Netherlands changed its succession law into cognatic primogeniture during King William III of the Netherlands when it had become apparent that he would leave no permanent agnatic issue. Specifically, partition occurred when the daughter of William III became Queen of the Netherlands, while a woman was not allowed to succeed to the throne of Luxembourg, giving way to a more distant relative. In 1907, however, Grand Duke William IV, having no sons, allowed his eldest daughter to succeed him (this interpretation implying that the Nassau Family Pact allows Semi-Salic succession). The Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde had great impact on Luxembourgish politics, until she was forced to abdicate in 1919. Since then, the Grand Dukes have kept to fulfilling representative duties. As in the Dutch tradition, none of the recent Grand Dukes of Luxembourg has died in office: each has abdicated when he felt his heir was ready to assume the title.   Grand Dukes of Luxembourg   The House of Orange-Nassau 1815–1840  : William I    (1772–1843) (also King William I   of the Netherlands) 1840–1849  : William II   (1792–1849) (also King William II of the Netherlands) 1849–1890  : William III (1817–1890) (also King William III of the Netherlands)   The House of Nassau-Weilburg 1890–1905  : Adolf (1817–1905) 1905–1912  : William IV (1852–1912) 1912–1919  : Marie-Adélaïde (1894–1924 abdicated) 1919–1964  : Charlotte (1896–1985, abdicated) 1964–2000  : Jean (born 1921, abdicated) Since 2000  : Henri (born 1955)
The Bissen Family Site